Implementing the English language syllabus (secondary level) : the Singapore experience
[From the introduction]: This study attempts to illuminate the processes of planned change. More specifically, it examines the difficulties of implementing a revised English language syllabus in the context of Singapore's educational, cultural, socio-economic and political frameworks. It considers, too, those who plan change, the assumptions and models which inform their work, and the impact of their actions. A broad view, then, is taken of syllabus implementation as part of a larger pattern of systems, individuals and events which needs to be understood before a formal implementation programme begins (Kennedy, 1988). It is recognised that a knowledge of the successes and pitfalls of previous change efforts should inform the work of syllabus writers and implementors. So, this is a historical study, a diachronic comparison of two implementation exercises, separated by a decade.