Advanced optical techniques for high capacity transmission
This thesis presents several advanced optical techniques that are crucial for improving high capacity transmission systems. The basic theory of optical fibre communications are introduced before optical solitons and their usage in optically amplified fibre systems are discussed. The design, operation, limitations and importance of the recirculating loop are illustrated. The crucial role of dispersion management in the transmission systems is then considered. Two of the most popular dispersion compensation methods - dispersion compensating fibres and fibre Bragg gratings - are emphasised. A tunable dispersion compensator is fabricated using the linear chirped fibre Bragg gratings and a bending rig. Results show that it is capable of compensating not only the second order dispersion, but also higher order dispersion. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) are studied and discussed. Different dispersion maps are performed for all Raman amplified standard fibre link to obtain maximum transmission distances. Raman amplification is used in most of our loop experiments since it improves the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and significantly reduces the nonlinear intrachannel effects of the transmission systems. The main body of the experimental work is concerned with nonlinear optical switching using the nonlinear optical loop mirrors (NOLMs). A number of different types of optical loop mirrors are built, tested and implemented in the transmission systems for noise suppression and 2R regeneration. Their results show that for 2R regeneration, NOLM does improve system performance, while NILM degrades system performance due to its sensitivity to the input pulse width, and the NALM built is unstable and therefore affects system performance.