Photonic effects in microstructured conjugated polymer films and light emitting diodes
This thesis reports an investigation into the photonic effects caused by wavelength scale micro structure patterned onto films of conjugated polymers. The efficiency of light emitting diodes (LEDs) made from conjugated polymers is limited in part by the trapping of light into waveguide modes caused by the high refractive index of these materials. Waveguide modes in films of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) and poly(2-methoxy, 5-(2'ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) are analysed and the refi-active index of these materials is calculated. The photoluminescence of conjugated polymer films that have been spun onto textured substrates is analysed. It is found that the photoluminescence quantum yield of a film spun onto a substrate inscribed with a grating is increased. It is also found that the photoluminescence spectrum of the film is dramatically altered and varies substantially with viewing angle. The features in the spectrum caused by the grating are strongly polarized. These effects are analysed and are attributed to the scattering of waveguided light out of the film. It is found that films spun onto metal gratings exhibit especially strong scattering. The effect of metal gratings with various grating depths is analysed. The possible contribution of band gaps to the photoluminescence spectrum from polymers on strong metal gratings is discussed. LEDs that include grating structures are constructed and analysed. It is found that having grating structures on the metal layers that are used as electrodes in the LED does not adversely affect the electrical properties of the LED. It is demonstrated that the grating in the LED is able to substantially increase the light emission without using extra electrical power. The emission spectra from LEDs are observed to vary with angle, and exhibit considerable polarization.