Effects of oxidative stress and neuroprotection in apoptosis in neuronal cell models
The PC12 and SH-SY5Y cell models have been proposed as potentially realistic models to investigate neuronal cell toxicity. The effects of oxidative stress (OS) caused by both H2O2 and A on both cell models were assessed by several methods. Cell toxicity was quantitated by measuring cell viability using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) viability assay, an indicator of the integrity of the electron transfer chain (ETC), and cell morphology by fluorescence and video microscopy, both of which showed OS to cause decreased viability and changes in morphology. Levels of intracellular peroxide production, and changes in glutathione and carbonyl levels were also assessed, which showed OS to cause increases in intracellular peroxide production, glutathione and carbonyl levels. Differentiated SH-SY5y cells were also employed and observed to exhibit the greatest sensitivity to toxicity. The neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor (NGF) was shown to cause protection against OS. Cells pre-treated with NGF showed higher viability after OS, generally less apoptotic morphology, recorded less apoptotic nucleiods, generally lower levels of intracellular peroxides and changes in gene expression. The neutrophic factor, brain derived growth factor (BDNF) and ascorbic acid (AA) were also investigated. BDNF showed no specific neuroprotection, however the preliminary data does warrant further investigation. AA showed a 'janus face' showing either anti-oxidant action and neuroprotection or pro-oxidant action depending on the situation. Results showed that the toxic effects of compounds such as A and H2O2 are cell type dependent, and that OS alters glutathione metabolism in neuronal cells. Following toxic insult, glutathione levels are depleted to low levels. It is herein suggested that this lowering triggers an adaptive response causing alterations in glutathione metabolism as assessed by evaluation of glutathione mRNA biosynthetic enzyme expression and the subsequent increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) levels.