Performance analysis of wormhole routing in multicomputer interconnection networks
Perhaps the most critical component in determining the ultimate performance potential of a multicomputer is its interconnection network, the hardware fabric supporting communication among individual processors. The message latency and throughput of such a network are affected by many factors of which topology, switching method, routing algorithm and traffic load are the most significant. In this context, the present study focuses on a performance analysis of k-ary n-cube networks employing wormhole switching, virtual channels and adaptive routing, a scenario of especial interest to current research. This project aims to build upon earlier work in two main ways: constructing new analytical models for k-ary n-cubes, and comparing the performance merits of cubes of different dimensionality. To this end, some important topological properties of k-ary n-cubes are explored initially; in particular, expressions are derived to calculate the number of nodes at/within a given distance from a chosen centre. These results are important in their own right but their primary significance here is to assist in the construction of new and more realistic analytical models of wormhole-routed k-ary n-cubes. An accurate analytical model for wormhole-routed k-ary n-cubes with adaptive routing and uniform traffic is then developed, incorporating the use of virtual channels and the effect of locality in the traffic pattern. New models are constructed for wormhole k-ary n-cubes, with the ability to simulate behaviour under adaptive routing and non-uniform communication workloads, such as hotspot traffic, matrix-transpose and digit-reversal permutation patterns. The models are equally applicable to unidirectional and bidirectional k-ary n-cubes and are significantly more realistic than any in use up to now. With this level of accuracy, the effect of each important network parameter on the overall network performance can be investigated in a more comprehensive manner than before. Finally, k-ary n-cubes of different dimensionality are compared using the new models. The comparison takes account of various traffic patterns and implementation costs, using both pin-out and bisection bandwidth as metrics. Networks with both normal and pipelined channels are considered. While previous similar studies have only taken account of network channel costs, our model incorporates router costs as well thus generating more realistic results. In fact the results of this work differ markedly from those yielded by earlier studies which assumed deterministic routing and uniform traffic, illustrating the importance of using accurate models to conduct such analyses.