State-developed housing in Korea : a case study from Seoul
This study is concerned with the problems of low-income housing in Seoul, the capital of the Republic of Korea. In considering Korean housing policy it focusses on the role of the public sector and the attempts that are currently being made to supply state-developed housing for urban low-income groups in Seoul. The overall aim is to highlight the major factors governing the formulation of a housing policy for the achievement of a high level of public satisfaction, socioeconomic fulfilment and environmental quality. With the over-concentration of wealth and emplovment opportunities in the capital in recent years, the housing shortage has grown increasingly acute. A massive growth in illegal housing and squatter settlements has been the predictable result. The consequence of limited public investment in the housing sector is that it is practically impossible to allocate sufficient resources for the housing needs of the low-income group, and without a clear understanding of the needs of the recipient population. Paradoxically, it was found that state-developed housing in Seoul tended to aid the middle or upper income groups. These groups often consume a vastly disproportionate share of housing resources. whatever funds and resources are available should in effect be rationed to meet the most urgent needs for shelter. In order to achieve the objectives of this study and to widen the range of information available to establish a firm basis for the analysis of the current housing situation, it was necessary to collect data about existing state-developed housing, both in terms of the machinery of provision and the dwellings constructed. General information was collected about housing institutions, about finance, and about laws and regulations affecting state-developed housing. Information about particular housing Danchis(estates) of varying types was collected in Seoul to form the starting point for a household survey designed to build up a more detailed picture of the physical character of dwellings, dwelling control, environmental locus, relative locus, housing mobility and the burden of financing. The resulting analysis, and discussions based on the field survey and investigations, made possible an examination of a wide range of information which is closely related to the residential and social functions of housing development. The thesis concludes with recommendations, and with an alternative policy strategy drawn from the various strands of the research, which might be used as a basis for a rational, equitable housing policy both in the medium and long term.