Integrity of packages and contents subject to handling and distribution hazards
The use of loosely packed items in rigid or semi-rigid containers is widespread. These packages are very often handled by high speed equipment and put in different environmental conditions which includes the possibility of mechanical damage, due to shock, impact and compression. So care must be taken that damage does not occur to both package and contents. The development of analytical and simulation techniques for investigating the dynamic behaviour of a package subject to handling and distribution hazards is becoming more possible by the use of a wide range of available software. The modelling of the dynamic behaviour of packaging systems during handling and transport is achieved by mathematical analysis where possible and supported by computer simulation. The analysis was carried out for a range of body properties in order to test the results against experimental data. Investigations into the applied package force/motion and subsequent package impact and deformation were carried out with a view to gaining an understanding of the forces involved. The dynamic analysis was undertaken using commercially available software but it is necessary to develop special techniques to enable it to be applied to this type of problem. Corrugated fibreboard containers subjected to internal and external loading will be subjected to stress, strain, deflection, and buckling to side panels. A Finite Element method of analysis of the panel was developed. The reaction of the panel to loading can be observed by means of this method. The failure of the container due to the loading can be predicted and the variability of the material and the panel can be changed arbitrarily to test and analyze different packaging designs. Corrugated fibreboard and container elements were treated as engineering structures so the engineering concepts of stress, stain, equilibrium and compatibility could be applied. A Finite Element method using the ANSYS code made it possible to analyze the structure behaviour and helps to partly solve the design optimization process for a corrugated container. The project includes four main aspects: Finite Element analysis of the corrugated fibreboard and container elements subjected to internal and external load. 2 Corrugated fibreboard material tests. 3 Modelling of a package-contents system 4 Simulation of the products-cushion-package system The main area of research that is described in this thesis is concerned with developing the analytical and experimental methods to model and analyze the behaviour of packaging. This enables the size of the cushioning structure to be minimized and the cushioning and package material to be selected appropriately. The final stage of this project was to develop the techniques for the prediction of the susceptibility to damage to packaging systems particularly during the design stage, and to develop a comprehensive technique for the design and justification of the package system.