Quality of worklife and organisational commitment : a study of non-supervisory employees in Malaysian organisations
Organisational commitment has been suggested as a function of the degree of integration and congruence of individual and organisational goals and values. The more employees can satisfy their needs through work, the more they will be committed to an organisation. The organisational conditions that influence such need satisfaction are generally known as quality of worklife (QWL). The purpose of the study was to examine the relative importance and perceived presence of factors associated with QWL, their relationships with organisational commitment (OC), and demographic patterns of their relationships for nonsupervisory employees in Malaysia. Underlying questions explored were the crosscultural universality of theories of QWL and OC and their utility for management policy and action. The research instrument employed was a survey questionnaire in the Malaysian language based on Western models of QWL and OC and using Likert scaling. Usable responses were obtained from 672 employees in 671 organisations. Statistical analysis was carried out using factor analysis, t-test, analysis of variance and multiple regressions. The Western model and measures of affective, normative and continuance commitment were generally supported, but two sub-factors emerged for continuance commitment relating to cost of leaving and lack of alternatives. The collectivist nature of Malaysian culture emerged as an important determinant of QWL and, in turn, OC. The most important QWL factors were workplace integration, work environmenta nd supervision. The first two of these were perceived as those most present. Different demographic relationships emerged between affective, normative and continuance commitment and QWL. Indicators for changing management policies and action to improve QWL and hence OC among non-supervisory employees in Malaysia concern work environment, workplace integration and the social relevance of work. The equity of pay and benefits, though itself an unimportant QWL factor, was also related to affective commitment.