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Title: Investigation of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures using modulated reflectance spectroscopy
Author: Choulis, Stylianos Athanasiou
ISNI:       0000 0001 3548 5130
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 2001
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We investigate the electronic band structure of device relevant GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) and veitical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures. We report photo-modulated reflectance (PR) studies under applied pressure and variable temperature that probe the influence of N-related states on the electronic structure of dilute nitrogen (N) III-V MQWs. The pressure and temperature dependence of the intersubband transitions within the MQWs is reduced by addition of N. By matching our experimental results with a theoretical model important predictions for the ground-state electron effective mass and conduction band offset as a function of N and pressure are made. We present results of angle- and temperature-dependent electro-reflectance (ER) measurements on a dilute-N GaInNAs VCSEL and show that these explain how the corresponding VCSEL device can operate over a such a wide range of temperatures. We argue that intrinsic properties of dilute-N QWs provide novel ways to design laser devices, especially in the crucial telecommunication range of wavelengths. We show how non-destructive ER and PR measurements can be used, in order to estimate the QW transition energy when it is coupled with the cavity mode (CM). The energy of the main exciton is determined by monitoring the amplitude and the phase of the PR spectra. The ER measurements are presented on the GaInNAs VCSEL described in the previous paragraph. Furthermore we present a growth characterisation study on a representative InGaAs/GaAs/AlAs/AlGaAs as-grown VCSEL structure, using PR spectroscopy as a function of position on a non-uniform wafer. We also show how temperature dependent PR and the appropriate lineshape model can be used to obtain a full picture of the relative movements between the gain and the CM over the full range of temperature. This information allows calculating the material gain in the temperature range of interest, independent from the effect of the CM and also provides an alternative method for characterising the growth, which can be applied to uniform wafers. PR and non-destructive ER can be used to identify regions suitable for fabrication into devices. For this reason modulation spectroscopy can be very useful for industry to reject wafers where good alignment between the CM and the QW does not occur and can thus save on the time consuming and expensive fabrication procedures.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available