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Title: Absorbed dose conversion factors for therapeutic kilovoltage x-ray beams calculated by the Monte Carlo method.
Author: Knight, Richard Thomas.
Awarding Body: Institute of Cancer Research (University Of London)
Current Institution: Institute of Cancer Research (University Of London)
Date of Award: 1996
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Abstract:
This thesis describes techniques for performing calculations of absorbed dose conversion factors for therapeutic kilovoltage and megavoltage x-ray beams, by application of the Monte Carlo method. These factors are low-energy x-ray backscatter factors, B, low- and medium-energy x-ray mass energy absorption coefficient ratios, water-to-air, We,IP)w.a,r ' and megavoltage x-ray stopping power ratios, water-to-air, s. The EGS4 and ITS Monte Carlo systems were used to model the relevant particle transport. Consistent theoretical expressions for absorbed dose in kilovoltage x-ray beams have been proposed. For low-energy x-rays, the expression for absorbed dose to water, D, requires values of defined as a water kerma ratio at the surface of a water phantom, and also of [(Jie,,/P)w.,r]p, evaluated over the primary spectrum (free-in-air). For medium-energy O x-rays, values of (Pen(Z,f)I'P)w,air are necessary, which are dependent on depth, z, and field-size,f. Bragg-Gray cavity theory entails values of SWthI(z) to convert readings from recommended ionisation chambers, calibrated in terms of air-kerma or exposure, into D. Bremsstrahlung spectra have been calculated by detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the NPL standard accelerator, a Philips SL series linac and a Siemens Stabilipan x-ray unit. Values of (i1 ,,/P)w air and B' have been calculated for therapeutic polyenergetic kilovoltage beams, over a comprehensive range of field sizes and beam qualities, following the Monte Carlo calculation of photon fluence in water and by a kerma-weighted averaging technique utilising primary fluence spectra and pre-calculated values of monoenergetic Values of Spencer-Attix s,, have similarly been calculated for the NPL standard and therapeutic linac beams following the Monte Carlo calculation of electron fluence in water and by a dose-weighted averaging technique utilising primary fluence spectra and pre-calculated monoenergetic dose distributions. Accurate TPR values, which account for linac spectrum quality shift off-axis, have been acquired by convolving water terma distributions with point-energy-deposition kernels. The beam quality dependence of N, the NFL absorbed dose-to-water calibration factor, has subsequently been investigated. Data appropriate for insertion into recommended expressions for D is presented and compared to data provided in the literature.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.389910  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Biophysics Biophysics Radiobiology
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