Optimisation of multiplier-less FIR filter design techniques
This thesis is concerned with the design of multiplier-less (ML) finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters. The use of multiplier-less digital filters results in simplified filtering structures, better throughput rates and higher speed. These characteristics are very desirable in many DSP systems. This thesis concentrates on the design of digital filters with power-of-two coefficients that result in simplified filtering structures. Two distinct classesof ML FIR filter design algorithms are developed and compared with traditional techniques. The first class is based on the sensitivity of filter coefficients to rounding to power-of-two. Novel elements include extending of the algorithm for multiple-bands filters and introducing mean square error as the sensitivity criterion. This improves the performance of the algorithm and reduces the complexity of resulting filtering structures. The second class of filter design algorithms is based on evolutionary techniques, primarily genetic algorithms. Three different algorithms based on genetic algorithm kernel are developed. They include simple genetic algorithm, knowledge-based genetic algorithm and hybrid of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. Inclusion of the additional knowledge has been found very useful when re-designing filters or refining previous designs. Hybrid techniques are useful when exploring large, N-dimensional searching spaces. Here, the genetic algorithm is used to explore searching space rapidly, followed by fine search using simulated annealing. This approach has been found beneficial for design of high-order filters. Finally, a formula for estimation of the filter length from its specification and complementing both classes of design algorithms, has been evolved using techniques of symbolic regression and genetic programming. Although the evolved formula is very complex and not easily understandable, statistical analysis has shown that it produces more accurate results than traditional Kaiser's formula. In summary, several novel algorithms for the design of multiplier-less digital filters have been developed. They outperform traditional techniques that are used for the design of ML FIR filters and hence contributed to the knowledge in the field of ML FIR filter design.