The R&D/marketing interface in product innovation : a case of the UK pharmaceutical industry
This R&D/marketing interface study is of a multi-disciplinary nature. In the study the role of the R&D/marketing interface is re arded as the pursuit of competitive advantage through negotiated exchange process between the two parties. As a result, iportant research constructs are identified with reference to several academic disciplines, including organization theory, innovation studies, marketing and strategic management. These constructs are (a) the environmental constructs, (b) the organizational constructs, and (c) the strategic constructs. A case study methodology is applied to examine the R&D/marketing interface patterns and tendencies found in twelve drug innovation projects. However, the research theoretical framework is not constrained to a particular industry. Thus, on the basis of the framework, the study aims to offer a higher level explanation on why these variations and tendencies regarding the R&D/marketing interface have been observed. The research findings indicate that the twelve drug innovation projects studied in this research belong to three project types. These include a' relatedtechnology and existing-market' t of project, an "unrelated-technology and new-market" type of project and anew-technology and new-market" type of project. The research findings further reveal that the effectiveness and the desired level of the R&D/marketing interface are influenced by both the environmental constructs and the organizational constructs. Meanwhile, several unexpected findings are derived from the research, such as the serious effect of contingent technical problems upon the R&D/marketing interface, the crucial balance between development speed and development risk and so on. The research has resulted in a more precise definition of the R&D/marketing interface in five dimensions. These are (a) the corporate strategic dimension, (b) the corporate technical dimension, (c) the product strategic dimension, (d) the product technical dimension and (e) the operational dimension. These dimensions form a integral part of the R&D/marketing interface. This finding will provide the future research in this field with a crucial link to those academic areas indicated earlier. It will also help top management, marketing managers and R&D managers identify more accurately their responsibilities and detect quickly the weak interface dimensions that need to be strengthened.