External financial reporting in Indonesia and its implications for accounting development
The objective of this research is to explore the area of financial accounting, international accounting, and accounting technology transfer, with emphasis on accounting for developing countries, specifically Indonesia. Confining itself to external financial reporting, the study explores the influence of environmental aspects on accounting standards and practices, institutionally and technically. Analysis of the role and needs of preparers, users, auditors and government agencies, and of the interaction between institutional and technical aspects, conducted to ascertain their implications for accounting development in Indonesia. The empirical research was conducted using hypotheses as catalysts, to test the characteristics, general opinions and attitudes of the interested parties toward accounting standards and practices, accounting education and development of the accounting profession. The findings of the research suggest that accounting technology cannot be successfully transferred from a developed to a developing country without considering the influence of environment, particularly the role of government. Indonesia, heavily influenced by the US accounting, needs to improve its accounting system in order to make it appropriate for its own environment. Many deficiencies were found in the areas of accounting theory, accounting standards and practice, accounting rules and regulations, accounting education, professional accounting and the role of government. In order to improve the existing conditions, it must be recognised that those aspects are closely related, and that the only way to develop the role of accounting is to adopt an integrated approach. The study provides a series of recommendations, based upon the findings of the empirical research, which should provide a useful starting point towards such an approach.