The concept of the Holy Spirit in Ephesians and its relation to the pneumatologies of Luke and Paul
J. Adai's Der Heilige Geist als Gegenwart Gottes in den einzelnen Christen, in der Kirche und in der Welt: Studien zur Pneumatologie des Epheserbriefes (1985) advances scholarship a stage further by investigating Ephesians' concept of the Holy Spirit in its own right, not as part of Pauline pneumatology. His conclusion is Ephesians' pneumatology is a development from Paul in the Lucan direction. This raises two important questions: What is the relation between Lucan and Pauline pneumatologies? How do they relate to Ephesians? Adai offers no satisfactory answer: he did not compare Luke and Paul which would form the necessary background for an adequate solution. Given recent scholarly development on Lucan and Pauline pneumatologies (notably by J.D.G. Dunn, M.M.B. Turner, and more recently R.P. Menzies), a fresh investigation of Ephesians' pneumatology is necessary. Our thesis examined Ephesians under four main headings: the Spirit's relation to Christ, eschatology, the believer, and the church. In distinct contrast to Adai, we began each discussion by investigating the scholarly propositions on Luke and Paul. Only after such an investigation, did we examine the internal evidence of Ephesians. Our observation is Adai had overstated both the dissimilarities between Ephesians and Paul, and the similarities between Ephesians and Luke. Despite some coincidental similarities between Ephesians and Luke, almost inevitably, the telling similarities (in both language and concept) are between Ephesians and Paul. The result of our research is that Ephesians' pneumatology is not Lucan and not deutero-Pauline: it is simply Pauline.