Production and action of local mediators in the rat gastric mucosa
This study concerns the production and action of the local mediators nitric oxide (NO) and protaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the rat gastric mucosa. The major objectives were: (i) to determine which mucosal cell type(s) contained NO synthase activity, (ii) to establish the functional role(s) of NO in the gastric mucosa and (iii) to investigate regulation of gastric PGE2 production. Gastric mucosal cells were isolated by pronase digestion coupled with intermittent calcium chelation and were separated by either density-gradient centrifugation or by counterflow elutriation. The distribution of Ca2+ -dependent NO synthase activity, measured via the conversion of [14C]-L-arginine to [14C]-L- citrulline, paralleled the distribution of mucous cells in elutriated fractions. Pre-treatment of rats with lipopolysaccharide caused the induction of Ca2+ -independent NO synthase in the elutriator fractions enriched with mucous cells. Incubation of isolated cells with the NO donor isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) produced a concentration-dependent increase in the guanosine 3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) content which was accompanied by a concentration-dependent increase in release of immunoreactive mucin. Intragastric administration of ISDN of dibutyryl cGMP in vivo increased the thickness of the mucus layer overlying the gastric mucosa. The NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition (IC50 247 M) of histamine-stimulated aminopyrine accumulation, a measure of secretory activity, in cell suspensions containing > 80% parietal cells. SNAP increased the cGMP content of the suspension but did not decrease cellular viability, glucose oxidation or adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate content. The inhibitory effect of SNAP was observed in permeabilised cells stimulated with ATP and was stereospecifically blocked by preincubation with Rp-8-bromoguanosine 3'-5'-monophosphorothioate, which inhibits activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase.