Navigational efficiency in marine traffic operations in the port of Keelung
The rapid economic growth of Taiwan has been paralleled by an increase in marine. traffic in the port of Keelung. The increase has been evolutionary and, prior to this study, has lacked the benefit of supporting research necessary to ensure no loss in navigational efficiency. The study uses eclectic methodologies to: identify the nature of marine traffic at Keelung; assess the associated risks; and identify measures needed to reduce risk and increase navigational efficiency. For contextual purposes the study reviews current marine traffic operations at Keelung against the background of geographical constraint and environmental conditions. Radar survey and extensive sampling of professional opinion indicate that existent traffic control measures are both inadequate and open to contravention. Casualty analysis further identifies areas of concern where navigation risk has been shown to exist In particular the traffic separation scheme, introduced in 1990; has been found inadequate and lack of movement control reduces navigational efficiency. Use of visual simulators, at Taiwan Ocean University and University of Plymouth, provided a unique opportunity to compare present marine traffic operations against a modified model. The modified model incorporated limited vessel traffic service functions and channel markers, neither of which exist at present in the live situation. Most significantly the experiment has enabled evaluation of the difference between Taiwanese and foreign ship masters when handling ships in the port approaches. Analysis of ship's tracks, and subjects' perceptions, concludes that provision of channel markers and sequence control greatly simplifies the operation and reduces risk. The need to widen the traffic lanes by reducing the separation zone between inward and outward lanes is identified. The study shows that navigational safety and efficiency at Keelung can be improved through the introduction of small changes to operation and working practices, The study provides the basis for a programme of continuing work necessary to maintain or further improve standards once the recommendations of the study have been implemented.