The durability of cement bound minestone.
The demand for road making materials continues to pressurise the supply of traditional good quality aggregates. Over the years, therefore, consideration has been given to alternative materials including industrial wastes. This thesis is concerned with potential use of Minestone, the by-product of coal mining, for the lower structural layers of pavement construction. Because of their clay like nature, Minestones do not merit consideration for such applications in an unbound state and, therefore, some form of stabilisation is necessary. Previous research has demonstrated that certain cement bound minestones, containing between 5 and 10 per cent cement, satisfy current Department of Transport requirements for use in pavement construction and, furthermore, they are not frost susceptible. However, doubts concerning the durability of cement bound minestones still remain. The thesis includes a review of both the cement and lime stabilisation techniques and also traces the origin and development of the methods used to assess the quality and durability of stabilised materials. An experimental study is described in which cement bound minestone specimens were subjected to a programme of tests which examined compressive strength, resistance to immersion, and resistance to freezing and thawing. The results of the tests were related to the properties of the raw materials. It was discovered that the response to cement stabilisation was governed mainly by the source of the minestone and, to a lesser degree, the cement content. It was also found that resistance in the durability tests was generally improved when the initial moisture content was raised above the optimum value. The result suggest that current methods for assessing cement stabilised materials are not appropriate to cement bound minestones. Alternative methods and criteria, based on volume change and retained strength following immersion and freeze-thaw tests, have been proposed. It is believed that these methods and criteria should also apply to other cement bound materials.