Speech and narrative : characterisation techniques in the "Aeneid"
The thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of the characterisation of two of the major figures in the Aeneid, Aeneas and Turnus. Particular attention is paid to their direct speeches, all of which are examined and, where relevant, compared to Homeric models and parallels. To this purpose considerable use is made of the indices in Knauer's Die Aeneis und Homer. A more general comparison is made between the dramatic (direct speech) role of Aeneas and those of Homer's Achilles (Iliad) and Odysseus (Odyssey). An appraisal is made (from the viewpoint of depiction of character) of the relationship between the direct and indirect speeches in the Aeneid. Reasons are given to suggest that it is not mere chance, or for the sake of variety, that certain speeches of Aeneas and Turnus are expressed in oratio obliqua. In addition, the narrative portrayal of Aeneas and Turnus is considered in apposition to that of the speeches. A distinction is drawn between Vergil's direct method of characterisation (direct speeches) and his indirect methods (narrative/oratio obliqua). Inevitably, the analysis involves major consideration of the Roman values which pervade the work. All speeches, thoughts and actions of Aeneas and Turnus are assessed in terms of pietas, impietas, furor, virtus, ratio, clementia, humanitas (etc.). It is shown that individual concepts (such as pietas and impietas) are reflected in Vergil's direct and indirect methods of characterisation. The workings of fate and their relevance to the pietas concept are discussed throughout.