Insulin release from cultured B-cells
Established RlNm5F and lN111 R1 and newly available HlT-T15 and UMR 407/3 B-cell lines have been successfully maintained in vitro. With the exclusion of UMR 407/3 cells, all lines were continuously propagable. Doubling times and plating efficiencies for HlT-T15, RlNm5F, lN111 R1 and UMR 407/3 cells were 20 hours and 85%, 31 hours and 76%, 24 hours and 80% and 38 hours and 94% respectively. All the cell lines were anchorage dependent, but only UMR 407/3 cells grew to confluence. Only HlT-T15 and UMR 407/3 cells produced a true insulin response to glucose but glucose markedly increased the rate of D-[U14C]glucose oxidation by all the cell lines. Glucose induced insulin release from HlT-T15 cells was biphasic with an exaggerated first phase. Insulin release from HlT-T15, RlNm5F and IN111 R1 cells was stimulated by amino acids and sulphonylureas. Glucagon stimulated insulin release from HlT-T15 and RlNm5F cells while somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide inhibited release. These observations suggest that net insulin release from the whole islet may be the result of significant paracrine interaction. HlT-T15 and RlNm5F cell insulin release was stimulated by forskolin and inhibited by imidazole. Ca2+ channel blockade and calmodulin inhibition suppressed insulin release from HlT-T15, RlNm5F and IN111 R1 cells. In addition phorbol esters stimulated insulin release from RlNm5F cells. These data implicate cAMP, Ca2+ and protein kinase-C in the regulation of insulin release from cultured B-cells. Acetylcholine increased insulin release from HlT-T15 and RlNm5F cells. Inhibition of the response by atropine confirmed the involvement of muscarinic receptors. HlT-T15 cell insulin release was also inhibited by adrenaline. These observations suggest a possible role for the autonomic nervous system in the modulation of insulin release. Preliminary studies with a human insulinoma maintained in monolayer culture have demonstrated a limited life span of some seven weeks, a continuous low level of insulin release but no insulin response to glucose challenge.