Creative characteristics and internal/external control in Egyptian middle school children
This study was carried out in six preparatory schools in the city of El-Fayoum in Egypt. The sample of the study comprised 230 boys and girls who were in their second year of preparatory school (middle school), and 100 teachers. The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between creativity and the locus of control. The research was also concerned with: (a) the relationship between creativity and intelligence; (b) the relationship between intelligence and the locus of control; (c) sex differences in both creativity and the locus of control; (d) the concept of the ideal pupil as held by the group of teachers. Creativity was measured by a creativity inventory and by the teachers' ratings of students' creative performance in Arabic and drawing. The following tests were given to the students: (1) the GIFFI I creativity inventory; (2) the Nowicki-Strickland locus of control scale; (3) the Pictorial Intelligence test. The teachers were requested to answer the following questionnaires: (1) the Ideal Pupil Check-list; (2) the creativity rating scale. The pilot study showed that these instruments were valid for use in this research. Five hypotheses were examined in the research. These were concerned with the relationships between creativity and internal locus of control, creativity and intelligence, and internal control and intelligence; and also with sex differences in creativity and locus of control, and Egyptian teachers' concept of the ideal pupil.The results confirmed the first and the fifth of these hypotheses. The other hypotheses were rejected by the data. These findings are in line with previous results relating to these areas of research. The findings of the present research are explained in the light of creative personality theory and in the light of socio-cultural factors which influence the development of creative behaviour. Finally, suggestions are made which may, it is hoped, help schools in Egypt to develop internal orientation and creativity in their pupils.