Dynamic damping properties of elastomers and composite panels for low noise diesel engines
The most practical treatment for reducing the noise of present diesel engines is to replace the thin-section, noise-radiating components with constrained damping layers, where a viscoelastic layer is sandwiched between two elastic layers to give the composite panel high damping characteristics. The damping ability of such panels is highly dependent on dynamic shear properties of viscoelastic materials as well as on the selection of elastic materials. The damping shear properties of viscoelastic materials are highly dependent on frequency and temperature. Experimental data on the damping properties of viscoelastic materials are, so far, limited to a small low frequency range. The forced vibration non-resonant technique is adopted in the present investigation. Atest rig has been designed, built and developed to measure the dynamic shear properties of some visoelastic materials over a wide range of temperature (40 to 1000C). These properties are also measured over a wide range of frequency (50-1500 Hz), covering part of the audio frequency range, in which the severity of engine noise occurs. Polysulphide rubber and ethylene propylene rubber have been tested. Their dynamic shear properties have been obtained, tabulated and plotted as functions of frequency and temperature. The effect of strain amplitude has been investigated and discussed. A new approach for an easy, fast and direct measurement of the loss shear modulus has been proposed. It has been found that both viscoelastic materials possess considerable damping, especially over the frequency range of 900-1500 Hz. The effect of strain amplitude was found negligible. The optimum design and damping ability of three layer composite panels have been investigated. The effects of elastic and viscoelastic material on the damping of these panels has been examined. Magnesium has been found to be a superior elastic material of those investigated. Aluminium is the next most suitable elastic material, with steel as the least suitable elastic material. Polysulphide rubber and ethylene propylene rubber have been found suitable for use in composite damping panels, but their relative attractiveness is strongly dependent on frequency and temperature.