Brazilian economic thought (1945-1964) : the ideological cycle of developmentalism
This work contains an exposition and analysis of Brazilian economic thought as found in books, specialized periodicals in the field of economics, and governmental writings between 1945 and 1964. A systematization of that thought is offered along with a reproduction of the debates held between the distinct currents of economic thought within the country. The economic thought covered herein has been politically engaged in the discussion of the Brazilian process of industrialization. The key organizing concept that gives unity to our account is that of "developmentalism", seen as the ideology of transforming Brazilian society through an economic project of state-supported industrialization as a way to overcome underdevelopment. In the introductory section and serving as a link between economic theory and Brazilian thinking, an exposition is made of the basic elements of ECLA'S analysis, which served as the major theoretical support to the opposition to liberalism in Brazil. The main body of the work is divided into two parts. In Part I a description is made of the essential features of the five major currents of thought found in the period covered by this study, i.e., three variables of developmentalism (private sector, "non-nationalist" public sector, and "nationalist" public sector), neo-liberalism (to the "right" of developmentalism), and the socialist current (to its "left"). In each current of thought emphasis is given to the work of their most representative economists, with special reference to the thought of Eugenio Guidin, Roberto Simonsen, Roberto Campos and Celso Furtado. A chapter is added to cover Ignacio Rangel's thinking. In Part II of the work an account is given of the evolution of the developmentalist controversy and an assessment is made of its historical determinants. For that purpose, a periodization has been selected on the basis of the movement of economic ideas. The key concept adopted, i.e. the idea of an "idealogical cycle of developmentalism", as well as the entire organization of the text, aim to explain the historical significance of Brazilian economic thought in its connections with the movement of Brazilian history itself.