The economic causes and consequences of labour migration from the Sudan : an empirical investigation
The aim of this study is to investigate, examine, and establish the nature and process of labour migration from the Sudan for work in other countries, as well as to assess the causes of this labour movement, and its implications for the economy of the Sudan, the individual migrant, and non-migrant. Sudanese migration is basically to the Arab oil producing and exporting countries, and it is relatively recent. Although this migration is highly selective, it involves differen~ types of labour; . unskilled, skilled, highly skilled as well as employed and unemployed labour. This study has shown that the 'pull' factors of migration exerted more pressure on the movement of labour than the 'push' factors prevailing in the Sudan. The increased demand for labour in the oil countries resulted in higher earnings in these countries relative to those in the Sudan. Income. differentials between the Sudan and immigration countries, as well as fluctuations in the level of gross domestic investment in these countries are the most significant variables in explaining migration from the Sudan. The effects of this migration on the economy of the Sudan are not entirely positive. The country has been able to export some of its unemployed labour force and gain some foreign exchange through migrants' remittances. However, because of the rapidly increasing migration rate and the skill composition of migrants, significant labour shortages could occur to the extent of considerable output losses, if migration continued at the present rate and composition. The individual migrant and his family at home, however, are able to derive substantial monetary gains as a result of this migration.