A systems approach to the aetiology of human injury in livestock building design
A brief outline introduces the problem of accidental injury, leading to an extensive literature review. Major weaknesses are established in current preventative measures and in accident data on which statistical analysis is based. The importance of design in reducing accidents in livestock buildings is stressed. Hypotheses are formulated and a systems approach adopted to structure analysis of human injury in livestock buildings. Data on agricultural accidents are statistically analysed producing histograms and measures of association between variables. Drawbacks of existing data and coding procedures are identified. A detailed coding frame is assembled and designed to retain relevant aspects of events and circumstances in accident causation. Enumeration of data enables univariate data description, and leads to investigation of variables by two- and three-way tables. Results and drawbacks of this analysis are discussed, and work is directed towards developing methods for data collection. This is based on fifty farms in Grampian region, and results in the design of an investigatory procedure for accidents at all levels of injury severity, using techniques such as interviews, questionnaires, observations, measurements and simulations. Cattle handling procedures are identified as an area of critical concern, and lead to a study of routine cattle handling by the application of observational methods. Analysis of data demonstrates methodological problems. Hypotheses are formed de novo and tested. Results are discussed and means of assessing stockmen's efficiency suggested. Research is integrated by considering the role of the designer in postulating preventative measures in cattle buildings, through an examination of five building types. Discussions with farmers, designers and HSE inspectors, results in a critical evaluation of problem areas. A conceptual framework and a broad sequence of decision making are presented to aid designers to establish preventative measures. Finally, hypotheses formulated previously are discussed in conclusion.