The finite element method in underwater acoustics
A Finite Element Method (FEM) is developed to calculate rotationally symmetric acoustic propagation over short range intervals (0-5 km) in shallow oceans (0-200 m deep) at low frequencies (0-50 Hz). The method allows full two-way wave propagation in range dependent environments and includes coupling to a full elastic seabed. Numerical results from a computer program are presented for propagation upslope, downslope, over seamounts and across trenches in the seabed. The seabed is modelled as a pressure release surface, a fluid halfspace and an elastic, solid halfspace and the implications of each type of model are discussed. The halfspaces, being represented by a new set of infinite elements, are modelled without truncation. The results are presented primarily as plots of transmission loss against range for a fixed depth receiver. Subsidiary results show the effect of depth averaging the receiver location, and extract mode amplitude data to reveal the strength of mode coupling and backscatter in different environments.