The development and breakaway of a compressible air jet with streamline curvature and its application to the Coanda flare
This study concerns an underexpanded jet, issuing from a convergent slot into quiescent air, as it is deflected by a convex surface of constant radius. Emphasis Is placed on the mechanism of breakaway, a phenomenon whereby the jet leaves the surface tangentially. An optical system based on the standard Z-type Schlieren configuration and capable of interferometric, Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques has been designed. The techniques are interchanged simply, a laser source being employed for Interferometry and a Xenon spark source for Schlieren and shadowgraph. Vibrations limit the interferometry and improvements are discussed. Shadowgraph and both spark and continuous Schlieren techniques gave good results. Total pressure traverses and surface oil flow visualization show that the influence of secondary flows on breakaway is small. Measurements of the coefficient of discharge show an increase both as the stagnation pressure Is Increased and as the slot width is reduced. The existence of a separation bubble has been established from surface static pressure measurements and shadowgraph and Schlieren photographs. Surface oil flow visualization shows a region of reversed flow withhin the bubble. The bubble grows as the stagnation pressure Is increased and eventually causes breakaway. A potential flow calculation method using the method of characteristics has been developed. Calculation of a fully attached Jet is inaccurate because the separation bubble is ignored. A calculation using the measured surface static pressures accurately predicts the main features of the first shock cell. Reattachment occurs further downstream of the jet and its breakaway should involve a coupling of the solutions of the outer shear layer, potential core and separated boundary layer, the latter including reversed flow.