Primary music teacher education in England and Turkey
This research investigates the primary student teachers' music education in England and Turkey. It is aimed to determine the generalist PGCE and specialist B.Ed students' attitudes and confidence towards primary music teaching before and after their teacher education courses. Similarly it investigated the 3(^rd) and 4(^th) year generalist student teachers' attitudes and confidence towards primary music teaching. Pre and post course questionnaires, interviews and informal observations were used for the study in England and a single questionnaire was applied to Turkish students. Factor analysis was used to construct a valid post-course questionnaire, which was also used to interpret some of the findings. English students' attitudes towards music teaching are based on three factors: (I) confidence in pedagogical content knowledge, (II) beliefs about value of music, (III) enjoyment of teaching music. Turkish students' responses on attitude statements created four factors: (I) confidence in content of music, (II) teaching role and beliefs to the value of music, (III) confidence in pedagogy, (IV) enthusiasm for music teaching. Turkish students tended to separate their pedagogical confidence from their subject knowledge confidence, whereas these aspects were merged for English students. In contrast to the Turkish teacher education course, the PGCE course increased students' confidence in their pedagogical knowledge and in creative activities at the end of their course. 3(^rd) year Turkish students were more confident in their musical and teaching knowledge and had more positive beliefs about the value of music education than the 4(^th) year students. Lack of time for music teaching practice and class management problems were shown as the main obstacles to the development of students' confidence to teach music further. The main implication for Turkish courses is to give more emphasis on pedagogy and creative activities for the education of students and English students should be given more chance to teach music during their teaching practice. Key Words: primary music education, specialist-generalist student teachers, attitude, confidence, and teaching practice.