The early Il-Khanate 1258-1282 : a re-appraisal.
The advent of the hordes of HUlegU Khan into Persia in the mid thirteenth century marked not only a
new era for the peoples of the Iranian plateau and the surrounding lands but for the invaders and
settlers themselves, The coming of HUlegU Khan was in sharp contrast to the visitations of his father,
Tolui Khan, and grandfather, Chinggis Khan, and the two generals, lebei and SUbodei, some three
This dissertation explores the establishment and development of the early ll-Khanate concentrating
on the period of HUlegU and his son Abaqa's reign from 1256 until 1282, roughly covering the period
of the luwaynis' ascendancy
After a survey and review of the primary sources used in researching this dissertation, chapters two
three and four look at the main events of the first two ll-Khans' reigns and the problems they faced
as their armies moved west
Chapters five and six deal with the threats that the emerging kingdom suffered from fellow Mongols
in the north and in the east, and how these tensions and conflicts were indicative of events and
developments elsewhere in the Mongol Empire,
Chapters seven, eight and nine deal respectively with the semi-autonomous provinces of Kirman,
Shiraz, and Herat Each of these provinces dealt with the central Mongol power in a different way and
these contrasting relationships is examined.
Chapter ten is concerned with a phenomenon often associated with the later thirteenth century,
namely the growth in the incidence of Sufis, Qalandars, and poets, all of whom flourished under the
II-Khans This chapter creates a picture of a world not always associated with Mongol Iran.
The final chapter summarises the conclusions drawn from the preceding chapters and attempts to
portray a fresh, more positive image of these early II-Khanid rulers and paint a more balanced and
less cynical picture of conditions under HUlegU and his son Abaqa.
The illustrations are intended more for their aesthetic appeal than their historical revelations.