Clustering, segregation and the 'ghetto' : the spatialisation of Jewish settlement in Manchester and Leeds in the 19th century
This thesis deals with the urban phenomenon of minority clusters, which are invariably referred to as 'ghettos'. A review of the literature on 'ghettos' suggests that the clustering of identifiable minorities is commonly associated with segregation - be it physical, economic, social or linguistic - although it is the physical segregation which tends to be most frequently noticed. Moreover, one type of segregation, such as physical - is believed to lead to another type, such as economic. Through studying Jewish settlement in Leeds and Manchester in the 19th century, two key questions are addressed in this thesis: The first is whether there is a link between spatial clustering and spatial segregation and the second is whether spatial clustering is linked to other forms of segregation, such as economic, occupational and social. Another two questions arise from the analysis: whether Jewish settlement patterns are distinctive in their own right, and whether it is possible to identify a pattern in the process of formation of Jewish settlement that may have broader implications for immigrant/minority settlement in general. The techniques and theories of 'Space Syntax' are used here to analyse the settlements in question by using detailed street-level mapping of census data on the entire Jewish population of Manchester and Leeds and of all non-Jewish individuals in the key Jewish districts of each of the cities (the key Jewish districts are generally referred to as 'ghettos'). This enables a multi-level socio-spatial comparison to be made: between Jewish families and their immediate neighbours; between Jewish families and the population of the city as a whole; and between the initial and secondary stages of Jewish settlement. In order to investigate questions relating specifically to immigrant settlement, non-Jewish people born outside of Britain are also considered as a separate group, although they are not the main subject. The analysis suggests that spatial clustering does not necessarily lead to spatial segregation and that spatial clustering may also be associated with some types of segregation, such as occupational but not with others, such as economic. It also suggests that Jewish settlement patterns are distinctive and that they are identifiable for a longer period than expected after immigration, when compared with other immigrants. This thesis also sheds light on the process of the formation of Jewish settlement, proposing a pattern whereby after establishing a core of settlement, streets already established become more densely populated, whilst new streets are settled more slowly. Analysis of the key districts of Jewish settlement also suggests that certain areas of cities are especially prone to settlement by the disadvantaged, due to characteristics that make such areas firstly, tend to be economically unsuccessful due to their spatial segregation and secondly, less attractive to those who have the means to move elsewhere and that such areas are not so much defined by their immigrant constituents, but by their long-standing inhabitants that cannot move elsewhere.