A study of low-income households and their perceptions of environmental problems during rapid urbanisation in Hanoi, Vietnam.
The thesis examines the living conditions of low-income households in Hanoi during a
period of economic, social and political change. The aims are viewed in the context of
rapid urbanisation. The study further considers how factors associated with low-income
have affected the perceptions of respondents in regards to their domestic environments
and to the environment at varying spatial levels. These perceptions are then compared to
the contributions made by the State, non-governmental organisations and international
donors to reveal that although information exists this rarely reaches those in low-income
A number of research methods revealed that an econometric approach alone does not
reveal the true characteristics or diversity of living conditions in the areas studied.
Conditions varied within and between study areas highlighting the multi-dimensional
nature of poverty and how, while lack of income can contribute to lack of environmental
conditions, it is not the only factor. Education, political affiliation and age in particular
are of crucial importance in explaining living conditions and attitudes to the environment.
As a result the thesis contributes to the growing literature on sustainable urbanisation and
illustrates the importance of adopting holistic and participatory approaches. By focusing
on Vietnam during the 1990s, this thesis has revealed the importance of considering
macro-level economic and political structures in the development of theory and policy
during processes of transition.