Pharmaceutical polymorphism : an investigation using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
The study of two pharmaceutically active systems that each display polymorphism has provided a platform upon which to develop and apply solid-state NMR techniques in order to increase the understanding of the solid-state structure of small organic molecules. The multidisciplinary approach adopted has highlighted the advantages of solid-state NMR as a non-invasive probe of molecular conformation and crystallographic packing.Carbon-13 CP/MAS spectra of the two polymorphs of BRL55834 - a fluorinated benzopyran derivative - immediately suggest the presence of one and three molecules in the asymmetric unit. A lack of crystals suitable for single-crystal XRD has catalysed the application of high-power powder X-ray diffraction studies. Subsequent attempts at structure solution using Genetic Algorithm techniques are showing preliminary results that reinforce predictions made from solid-state NMR. Novel triple-channel techniques have aided assignment and resolution of die complex (^13)C CP/MAS spectra. Enrichment of the (^15)N site appears to have resulted in the formation of a new polymorph. Techniques for the analysis of detection Units have been developed using solid-state Raman spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. The aminoxanthine derivative, BRL61063, provides interesting inter-form variations in molecular disorder, solid-state packing, and hydrogen bonding. A previously basic understanding of the single-crystal XRD data has been further evaluated through the course of this Ph.D. and solid-state NMR spectral editing techniques have been developed and applied to identify these phenomena. Recrystallisation studies have produced two samples that appear to exist in an intermediate state between the rigid and mobile structural limits. Temperature variation causes interesting changes in the relaxation characteristics and natural abundance (^15)N and (^13)C CP/MAS spectra. Residual dipolar coupling effects vary in their manifestation within the (^13)C CP/MAS spectra of the polymorphic systems studied and comparison with the literature yields important information regarding molecular conformation. Nitrogen-15 enrichment and operation at higher magnetic field have been applied to reduce these second order effects. Finally, some distance has been travelled along the path towards decoupling (^14)N. Future development of this technique holds potential for resolution enhancement in the solid state spectra of most naturally occurring, nitrogen-containing molecules.