Optical spectroscopy of thin film semiconductor structures
This thesis consists of a study of several thin film semiconductor structures of practical technological use either presently or in the near future. The first system studied is an ultra thin film single crystal gallium arsenide layer. The absorption spectra of these layers are measured and transitions at both the F- point and L-point of the Brillouin Zone are observed, the latter are not normally measurable in thicker layers. The observed shift in the F-point absorption edge is attributed to contributions from the Franz-Keldysh Effect and the Moss-Burstein Effect. The temperature dependence of the L-point energy gap is measured and compared with previous data. The next system investigated is an n-type porous silicon layer coated with p-type polyaniline. Both photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra and the electrical characteristics have been measured for this system. The interface between the two layers is found to be a rectifying junction consistent with a potential barrier formed at the interface. In forward bias, it is possible to generate electroluminescence in the visible and near infra red regions. The final structure studied is a thin film cadmium sulphide-cadmium telluride solar cell structure. The cells are found to have a low efficiency of around 1% as grown, but a process of treatment with cadmium chloride and annealing in air improves this by a factor of approximately ten. Photoluminescence measurements on the back surface of the cadmium telluride revealed three major emission bands at 1.59 eV, 1.55 eV and 1.45 eV. By varying temperature and incident laser power, attempts at assigning the bands to specific impurity centres in the cadmium telluride is made Using a novel bevelling etch technique to prepare samples, depth dependent measurement of the photoluminescence is possible. This reveals that the major changes associated with the improvement in efficiencies occurs at the interface between the CdS and the CdTe.