Parallel tracking systems
Tracking Systems provide an important analysis technique that can be used in many different areas of science. A Tracking System can be defined as the estimation of the dynamic state of moving objects based on `inaccurate’ measurements taken by sensors. The area encompasses a wide range of subjects, although the two most essential elements are estimation and data association. Tracking systems are applicable to relatively simple as well as more complex applications. These include air traffic control, ocean surveillance and control sonar tracking, military surveillance, missile guidance, physics particle experiments, global positioning systems and aerospace. This thesis describes an investigation into state-of-the-art tracking algorithms and distributed memory architectures (Multiple Instructions Multiple Data systems - “MIMD”) for parallel processing of tracking systems. The first algorithm investigated is the Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) which has been shown recently to be one of the most cost-effective in its class. IMM scalability is investigated for tracking single targets in a clean environment. Next, the IMM is coupled with a well-established Bayesian data association technique known as Probabilistic Data Association (PDA) to permit the tracking of a target in different clutter environments (IMMPDA). As in the previous case, IMMPDA scalability is investigated for tracking a single target in different clutter environments. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these new parallel techniques, standard languages and parallel software systems (to provide message-passing facilities) have been used. The main objective is to demonstrate how these complex algorithms can benefit in the general case from being implemented using parallel architectures.