Simulation of optical fibre communication systems influenced by stimulated brillouin scattering
Boyd's SBS model which includes distributed thermal acoustic noise (DTAN) has been enhanced to enable the Stokes-spontaneous density depletion noise (SSDDN) component of the transmitted optical field to be simulated, probably for the first time, as well as the full transmitted field. SSDDN would not be generated from previous SBS models in which a Stokes seed replaces DTAN. SSDDN becomes the dominant form of transmitted SBS noise as model fibre length (MFL) is increased but its optical power spectrum remains independent of MFL. Simulations of the full transmitted field and SSDDN for different MFLs allow prediction of the optical power spectrum, or system performance parameters which depend on this, for typical communication link lengths which are too long for direct simulation. The SBS model has also been innovatively improved by allowing the Brillouin Shift Frequency (BS) to vary over the model fibre length, for the nonuniform fibre model (NFM) mode, or to remain constant, for the uniform fibre model (UFM) mode. The assumption of a Gaussian probability density function (pdf) for the BSF in the NFM has been confirmed by means of an analysis of reported Brillouin amplified power spectral measurements for the simple case of a nominally step-index single-mode pure silica core fibre. The BSF pdf could be modified to match the Brillouin gain spectra of other fibre types if required. For both models, simulated backscattered and output powers as functions of input power agree well with those from a reported experiment for fitting Brillouin gain coefficients close to theoretical. The NFM and UFM Brillouin gain spectra are then very similar from half to full maximum but diverge at lower values. Consequently, NFM and UFM transmitted SBS noise powers inferred for long MFLs differ by 1-2 dB over the input power range of 0.15 dBm. This difference could be significant for AM-VSB CATV links at some channel frequencies. The modelled characteristic of Carrier-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) as a function of input power for a single intensity modulated subcarrier is in good agreement with the characteristic reported for an experiment when either the UFM or NFM is used. The difference between the two modelled characteristics would have been more noticeable for a higher fibre length or a lower subcarrier frequency.