Modelling the dynamics of cutting during turning
This thesis presents an approach to cutting dynamics during turning based upon the mechanism of deformation of work material around the tool nose known as "ploughing". Starting from the shearing process in the cutting zone and accounting for "ploughing", new mathematical models relating turning force components to cutting conditions, tool geometry and tool vibration are developed. These models are developed separately for steady state and for oscillatory turning with new and worn tools. Experimental results are used to determine mathematical functions expressing the parameters introduced by the steady state model in the case of a new tool. The form of these functions are of general validity though their coefficients are dependent on work and tool materials. Good agreement is achieved between experimental and predicted forces. The model is extended on one hand to include different work material by introducing a hardness factor. The model provides good predictions when predicted forces are compared to present and published experimental results. On the other hand, the extension of the ploughing model to taming with a worn edge showed the ability of the model in predicting machining forces during steady state turning with the worn flank of the tool. In the development of the dynamic models, the dynamic turning force equations define the cutting process as being a system for which vibration of the tool tip in the feed direction is the input and measured forces are the output The model takes into account the shear plane oscillation and the cutting configuration variation in response to tool motion. Theoretical expressions of the turning forces are obtained for new and worn cutting edges. The dynamic analysis revealed the interaction between the cutting mechanism and the machine tool structure. The effect of the machine tool and tool post is accounted for by using experimental data of the transfer function of the tool post system. Steady state coefficients are corrected to include the changes in the cutting configuration with tool vibration and are used in the dynamic model. A series of oscillatory cutting tests at various conditions and various tool flank wear levels are carried out and experimental results are compared with model—predicted forces. Good agreement between predictions and experiments were achieved over a wide range of cutting conditions. This research bridges the gap between the analysis of vibration and turning forces in turning. It offers an explicit expression of the dynamic turning force generated during machining and highlights the relationships between tool wear, tool vibration and turning force. Spectral analysis of tool acceleration and turning force components led to define an "Inertance Power Ratio" as a flank wear monitoring factor. A formulation of an on—line flank wear monitoring methodology is presented and shows how the results of the present model can be applied to practical in—process tool wear monitoring in turning operations.