Automated shape anthropometry
In medicine, ergonomics, the clothing Industry and many other areas such as the design of 'g' suits for military aeroplane pilots and protective clothing for chemical warfare, there is a requirement for the accurate 3-D measurement of the size and shape of the human form. To meet this need a novel whole body scanner has been designed which is capable of measuring both the size and shape of people in a non invasive socially acceptable manner. The scanner uses structured light and an array of television cameras to view free standing subjects while they are being rotated on an electrically driven turntable. The accuracy and repeatability of the scanner is as good as trained anthropometrists using traditional manual methods. A computer program has been written which uses a cubic spline interpolation method to edit and interrogate the data from the scanner and arrange it in a shape matrix form. This is a new way of arranging the data which allows for the 3-D average of several bodies to be obtained and also for the comparison of one body with another. A technique which is essential if 3-D survey work is to be undertaken. Using master files which contain information from a data base of previously scanned people and eight circumferential measurements it is possible to re-create body forms of any size but which correspond to the average shape for that size. The re-creation of body shapes from eight circumferences is accurate enough for the manufacture of all but the most close fitting garments but may be more useful in the future as a replacement for somatotyping (physique classification). It is perfectly possible to manipulate the eight circumferences to create body torsos of almost any shape. Conversely a torso of almost any shape could be defined by eight two digit numbers.