Human resources in tourism : a study of the position of human resource issues in national tourism policy development and implementation
This thesis is concerned with the relationship between tourism policy, its formulation and implementation, at a national and regional level, and human resource concerns within tourism. The thesis includes detailed literature reviews in two main areas, i) tourism policy formulation and implementation and ii) human resource issues in relation to the tourism/hospitality industries. Through the execution of two surveys of national tourism organisations, the study considers a) the extent to which employment and related human resource determinants shape wider tourism policies; b) how human resource policy, planning and implementation are managed within tourism; c) the specific role of national tourism organisations within the development of policy and implementation strategies for human resource matters within tourism, and changes that have occurred in the role since a previous WTO study in 1975; and d) mechanisms that can be implemented to integrate human resource concerns more closely with mainstream tourism policy development. The study reports considerable fragmentation in the management of human resources, within tourism, both in terms of policy and the implementation functions. As a result, the area is seen as peripheral to the mainstream concerns of most tourism industries, is accorded low status and does not receive the same attention or support as related product and marketing concerns. A conceptual framework is proposed, which is designed to assist in the creation of an integrated approach to policy development and planning for human resources within tourism. The framework is developed in the context of a case study, based on Malaysia.