The development of a heat transfer measurement technique for application to rotating turbine blades
The successful design of a long-lived and efficient gas turbine engine requires a good knowledge of the thermal and aerodynamic performances of the components of the turbine. Of particular importance, is the heat transfer rate from the hot gases to the cooled turbine blades, since this limits the maximum turbine entry temperatures which can be obtained. Much gas turbine research is concentrated on experimental modelling and measurements to assist in the development of improved theoretical prediction techniques. The difficulties of instrumenting fully rotational rigs, which are necessary for a full understanding of the complex three dimensional flow in the turbine, have, however, to a large extent, limited most experimental research to stationary facilities. A technique is described which will allow heat transfer rate measurements to be made on fully rotating test facilities using mutlilayered model turbine blades comprising an electrical insulator on a metal base. An accurate and computationally efficient method for determining the surface heat flux to a multi-layered model turbine blade is developed theoretically, together with a method for calibrating the thermal properties of the multi-layered system. This method allows the existing successful heat flux measurement technique, which utilises electronic analogue circuitry in conjunction with thin film surface thermometers on a model made from a thermal insulator, to be extended for application to multi-layered models. The production of test models by the application of a vitreous enamel (as an electrical insulator), to a mild steel, is identified as the most suitable coating technique for experimental application. Radiant and wind tunnel testing of multi-layered cylindrical models are described, which confirm that the method is both practical and accurate.