An assessment of the determinants of packaging in technology transfer to developing countries : a theoretical and empirical study
The primary aim of this thesis-is to expound and elaborate the-concept of "packaging" in international technology-transfer transactions, both theoretically and empirically. Certain hypotheses concerning the determinants of the packaging level in transfer transactions are put forward and subsequently examined in the light of empirical findings. The basic theoretical framework is elaborated within the first eight chapters. Apart from expounding relevant concepts, these discuss the variety of methods which may be utilized to transmit technology, drawing substantially on published theories and field studies. The notion of "packaging" is explored and five levels of packaging are put forward, whereby the different transfer methods are categorized, accordingly. Some of these chapters are concerned with matters closely allied to decisions regarding the packaging level. These include the role played by the country's technological infrastructure, financial aspects of technologytransmission, and the causes and effects of State legislation, policy, and regulation. The last eight chapters are devoted to the two-fold task of analysing Iraq's experience in technology-acquisition and the methodology and findings of the empirical study. The role of the State in industrial development and technology-transfer is elucidated, with primary emphasis on the decade of the 1970's. Also, the parts played by the private and mixed sectors are assessed, and the changes in the country's imports of technology products analysed. After initiating contact with a sample of British firms, a group was finally chosen after ascertaining that they had exported manufacturing equipment to Iraq. These companies were visited, resulting thereby in a core sample of 32 transfer cases. In each case relevant information was obtained from the visited firm. The data were subsequently analysed to derive the general features of the transactions in question, and the various hypotheses were subjected to statistical testing. The results of these tests have proved negative in some cases and positive in others. Accordingly certain quantitative relationships have been established, which express the association of the level of packaging with a few relevant variables.