The evolution of electronic warfare equipment and techniques in the USA, 1901 to 1945
This work describes the evolution cf electronic warfare equipment and techniques in the USA, from the first instance of radio jamming in that country in 1901 until the end of World War II in 1945. It begins with a review of early work on telegraph, radio and radar systems throughout the world, and countermeasures used during trials or in combat prior to World War II. Immediately after the USA ertered the conflict in 1941, the Radio Research Laboratory was set up near Boston to develop radio countermeasures equipment for the US armed forces. The organisation rapidly outgrew the capacity of a angle laboratory and in October 1942 Division 15 of the National Defense Research Committee was formed, to co-ordinate US work on countermeasures. The activities of RRL and Division 15 are described in detail, using cortemporary records and accounts from participants. Radar jammers developed by Divison 15 were first used in action in July 1943 during the invason of Sicily, and went on to play important roles in support amphibious landings and strategic bombing operations in the European and Pacific theatres of operations. The jamming devices and tactics employed, the enemy attempts to develop counter-countermeasures and the US moves to counter these counters are all described in detail. Conclusions are drawn on the effectiveness of the various types of jamming, based on post-war interrogation of German and Japanese serving officers and technical personnel. Appendices give technical details of the countermeasures devices produced in the USA during World War II, and the development of radar and radar countermeasures in Germany and Japan.