Soil creep : a process study in Killhope basin, Upper Weardale, northern Pennines, England
The object of this research is to investigate the rate of soil creep and. its controlling variables at Killhope basin in Upper Weardale (Northern Pennines). The experimental work was designed to trace the movement of soil. Five sites were selected for study (three on peaty soils and two on mineral soils). At each site a set of four different instruments (an Anderson's tube, a Young's pit, wooden pillars and Rashidian's instrument)were used to measure creep rates for 18 months. To investigate which variables control this process, soil samples from sampling sites were used for quantitative analysis. The results of this study indicate: 1. Annual linear rates of soil creep varied from 0.58 mm to 1.52 mm.2. A strong relationship between creep rate and soil moisture content and its fluctuations.3. Higher creep rates for organic soils than for mineral soils.4. Non-exponential decline of rate of movement with depth.5. No evidence for the influence of slope angle on creep rate.6. The small differences in values recorded by different instruments show that the Rashidian technique was sufficiently accurate and useful for monitoring seasonal soil creep.