The transient behaviour of plain concrete at elevated temperatures
This thesis describes an investigation of the effect of elevated temperatures upon the properties of plain concrete containing a siliceous aggregate. A complete stress-strain relationship and creep behaviour are studied. Transient effects (non-steady state) are also examined in order to simulate more realistic conditions. A temperature range of 20-700ºC is used. corresponding to the temperatures generally attained during an actual fire. In order to carry out the requisite tests, a stiff compression testing machine has been designed and built. The overall control of the test rig is provided by a logger/computer system by developing appropriate software, thus enabling the load to be held constant for any period of tlme. Before outlining any details of the development of the testing apparatus which includes an electric furnace and the.associated instrumentation, previous work on properties of both concrete and. steel at elevated temperatures is reviewed. The test programme comprises four series of tests:stress-strain tests (with and without pre-load), transient tests (heating to failure under constant stress) and creep tests (constant stress and constant temperature). Where 3 stress levels are examined: 0.2, 0.4 & 0.6 fc. The experimental results show that the properties of concrete are significantly affected by temperature and the magnitude of the load. The slope of the descending portion branch of the stress-strain curves (strain softening) is found to be temperature dependent. After normalizing the data, the stress-strain curves for different temperatures are represented by a single curve. The creep results are analysed using an approach involving the activation energy which is found to be constant. The analysis shows that the time-dependent deformation is sensibly linear with the applied stress. The total strain concept is shown to hold for the test data within limits.