Simulation of power station protection equipment
Computer programs have been developed to enable the coordination of fuses and overcurrent relays for radial power systems under estimated fault current conditions. The grading curves for these protection devices can be produced on a graphics terminal and a hard copy can be obtained. Additional programs have also been developed which could be used to assess the validity of relay settings (obtained under the above conditions) when the transient effect is included. Modelling of a current transformer is included because transformer saturation may occur if the fault current is high, and hence the secondary current is distorted. Experiments were carried out to confirm that distorted currents will affect the relay operating time, and it is shown that if the relay current contains only a small percentage of harmonic distortion, the relay operating time is increased. System equations were arranged to enable the model to predict fault currents with a generator transformer incorporated in the system, and also to include the effect of circuit breaker opening, arcing resistance, and earthing resistance. A fictitious field winding was included to enable more accurate prediction of fault currents when the system is operating at both lagging and leading power factors prior to the occurrence of the fault.