A comprehensive theoretical and experimental study
is made of the following condensation processes, occurring
in cocurrent downwards flow within a single vertical tube
and with negligible shear effects at the vapour-liquid
1. Condensation of a vapour in the presence of a
2. Condensation of binary vapours of miscible liquids.
3. Multicomponent condensation of the vapours of
miscible liquids in the presence of a non-condensable
4. Condensation of binary vapours of immiscible liquids
where the vapours are not at eutectic conditions.
5. Condensation of vapours of immiscible liquids in
the presence of a non-condensable gas.
Condensation of binary vapours or vapour-gas mixtures
has been widely investigated and processes I and 2 are studied
in this work to test existing design methods particularly
the evaluation of heat and mass transfer coefficients and
the enhancement of transfer rates due to the presence of the
condensate. The experimental and theoretical procedures of
this work are validated to provide a firm basis for the
Multicomponent condensation of the vapours of miscible
liquids has been a subject of several recent studies. New data are presented and the following models of multicomponent
mass transfer are compared.
1. The linearised theory of Toor (1964)
2. The matrix method of Krishna and Standart (1976)
3. Simple effective diffusivity models.
Particular emphasis is given to the significance of
diffusional interactions and conditions under which the
simple effective diffusivity model is adequate are identified.
Little work is reported in the literature on
condensation of the vapours of immiscible liquids and these
studies are limited to binary eutectic mixtures. In this
work extensive new data are reported on condensation of
non-eutectic mixtures and multicomponent mixtures containing
a non-condensable gas. The data are compared with existing
correlations of the heat transfer coefficients of immiscible
liquid films. New methods are reported to allow design of
condensers carrying immiscible liquids. where the vapour is
of non eutectic composition or contains a non-condensable
gas. These methods are considered in relation to the