The role of drawing and memory drawing in English art education 1800-1980.
The histor,y of art education has few authorities. There ie no
histor,y of drawing in educational praotice, and there is no examination
of the comparative modes of drawing used in this area. This dissertation
is an attempt to partly offset this lack. It is a descriptive and
analytically historical stu~ of drawing in education in the 19th and
20th centuries in England, with especial reference to drawing from
Three models of educational theor,y are ereeted and analysed, those
of Humanism, Empiricism and Progressivism, and these are used as
invariables by which to examine the changing emphases within the beliefs
and practices of art e~cators. Within these oontexts, the influences of
three areas are studied for their connections with art education and its
components, drawing and memory drawing. These are:
a) The practice and theory of artists.
b) The findings of psychology.
c) The prevailing ethos of general educational theory and
The conclusions drawn are used to examine the rol e of drawing and memory
drawing in art education, at the levels of junior, secondary and
Whilst the use of the visual memory is present in all drawing
activity and this feature is studied, more attention is directed towards
pedagogical intervention and the methods and aims of such teaching.
Coniusion between theory an~ practice is a common occurrence, as is its
corollary, the application of inappropriate criteria to lesson products.
The demise of formally taught examples of memory drawing is studied,
reasons are proffered and discussion held as to whether this is a
necessary condition for the subject.
The possibility of reinstating memory drawing is Been as dependent
upon a conscious moderation of the influence of the educational models
in terms of:
a) The educational needs of teacher, taught and discipline.
b) The artistic values of object, idea, memory and medium.