Second messenger pathways in the action of cachectic factors
Administration of lipid-mobilising factor (LMF) to mice produced a specific reduction in carcass lipid with a tendency to increase non-fat carcass mass. Treatment of murine myoblasts, myotubes and tumour cells with tumour-produced LMF, caused concentration dependent stimulation of protein synthesis, within a 24hr period. It produced an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP levels, which was linearly related to the increase in protein synthesis. The observed effect was attenuated by pretreating cells with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor, MDL12330A and was additive with stimulation produced by forskolin. Both propranolol and a specific 3 adrenergic antagonist SR59230A, significantly reduced the stimulation of protein synthesis induced by LMF. LMF also affected protein degradation in vitro, as demonstrated by a reduction in proteasome activity, a key component of the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. These effects were opposite to those produced by PIF which caused both a decrease in the rate of protein synthesis and an elevation on protein breakdown when incubated in vitro. Incubation of LMF with a fat cell line produced alterations in the levels of guanine-nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins). This was also evident in adipocyte plasma membranes isolated from mice bearing the tumour model of cachexia, MAC16 adenocarcinoma and from patients with cancer cachexia. Progression through the cachectic state induced an upregulation of stimulatory G proteins paralleled with a downregulation of inhibitory G proteins. These changes would contribute to the increased lipid mobilisation seen in cancer cachexia.