Municipal solid waste management strategy for Malaysia : lesson learned from the United Kingdom experiences
The rapid growth of urban areas in Malaysia has led to an increase in the generation and complexity of its municipal solid waste. The amount of municipal solid waste generated is estimated to be 8 million tonnes per year by the end of 2000. Realising the problem, this research was conducted to analyse quantitatively experiences learned from the United Kingdom (UK) upon the success through their municipal solid waste management system set-up which includes enforcement, legislation, economic instruments, education, institutions involved and other related issues. In order to achieve that, comparative studies were conducted between United Kingdom and Malaysian practices which included selected local councils, namely Dundee City Council (DCC) in the UK and Majlis Perbandaran Petaling Jaya (MPPJ) and Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur (DBKL) both in Malaysia to identify and how to overcome the problems. Apart from the above objectives, this research suggests that: The most effective environmental solution is to reduce the generation of waste through reduction; Where further reduction is not practicable, products and materials can sometimes be used again, either for the same or a different purpose that is through re-use; Failing to do that, value should be recovered from waste, through recycling, composting or energy recovery from waste; Only if none of the above offer an appropriate solution should waste be disposed of This is the best hierarchy for Malaysia to adapt in its future municipal solid waste management strategy. In conclusion, this research showed that Malaysia's municipal solid waste management system and strategy have to be developed in term of its legislation and policy, the enforcement system, guidelines and target to be achieved and education as the key in developing awareness and knowledge.