Some factors related to educational attainment in Indonesian primary schools
As a part of the research tradition on school effectiveness in a developing country, this study focusses on cognitive aspects of educational attainment in Indonesian urban state primary schools. The main aim of this thesis is to identify factors at pupil, classroom and school level associated with pupil academic attainment and progress. Stratified random sampling was used to obtain a sample of 5118 pupils from 60 primary schools. In each school three upper grades (4-6) were selected, with their 180 class teachers and 60 headteachers. As a longitudinal survey, data were collected through questionnaires and school archives. Taking pupil prior year attainment as baseline, multilevel statistical techniques were used on assessments at the end of the school year to examine factors related to pupil, classroom and school levels which were related to pupils' attainment a year later. The results of this study showed some similarities and differences of predictive factors at different levels of analyses and variations across the grades. The proportion of total variance in pupil attainment for language at the school level ranged from 14 to nearly 23 per cent. In mathematics the school influence was larger (range 20 to 29 per cent of the variance was explained by the school). Pupil's gender and age, father's occupation, teacher's age, and the frequency of school meetings appeared to be significant negative predictors for certain attainment and grades. However, father's and mother's education, home language, books and newspapers at home, teacher's gender, in-service training in mathematics, teacher-gender proportion were significant positive predictors for certain attainments and grades. The most and least effective schools for each subject and grade in terms of residual estimates from the multilevel analysis were also identified. The issue of consistency in effects was examined both in relation to the two subjects and across grades. The findings contribute to current knowledge of Indonesian primary school effectiveness.