Vector offset operators for deformable organic objects
Many natural materials and most of living tissues exhibit complex deformable behaviours that may be characteriseda s organic. In computer animation, deformable organic material behaviour is needed for the development of characters and scenes based on living creatures and natural phenomena. This study addresses the problem of deformable organic material behaviour in computer animated objects. The focus of this study is concentrated on problems inherent in geometry based deformation techniques, such as non-intuitive interaction and difficulty in achieving realism. Further, the focus is concentrated on problems inherent in physically based deformation techniques, such as inefficiency and difficulty in enforcing spatial and temporal constraints. The main objective in this study is to find a general and efficient solution to interaction and animation of deformable 3D objects with natural organic material properties and constrainable behaviour. The solution must provide an interaction and animation framework suitable for the creation of animated deformable characters. An implementation of physical organic material properties such as plasticity, elasticity and iscoelasticity can provide the basis for an organic deformation model. An efficient approach to stress and strain control is introduced with a deformation tool named Vector Offset Operator. Stress / strain graphs control the elastoplastic behaviour of the model. Strain creep, stress relaxation and hysteresis graphs control the viscoelastic behaviour of the model. External forces may be applied using motion paths equipped with momentum / time graphs. Finally, spatial and temporal constraints are applied directly on vector operators. The suggested generic deformation tool introduces an intermediate layer between user interaction, deformation, elastoplastic and viscoelastic material behaviour and spatial and temporal constraints. This results in an efficient approach to deformation, frees object representation from deformation, facilitates the application of constraints and enables further development.