The development of a novel in vitro model suitable for the prediction of bioavailability
In vitro studies of drug absorption processes are undertaken to assess drug candidate or formulation suitability, mechanism investigation, and ultimately for the development of predictive models. This study included each of these approaches, with the aim of developing novel in vitro methods for inclusion in a drug absorption model. Two model analgesic drugs, ibuprofen and paracetamol, were selected. The study focused on three main areas, the interaction of the model drugs with co-administered antacids, the elucidation of the mechanisms responsible for the increased absorption rate observed in a novel paracetamol formulation and the development of novel ibuprofen tablet formulations containing alkalising excipients as dissolution promoters. Several novel dissolution methods were developed. A method to study the interaction of drug/excipient mixtures in the powder form was successfully used to select suitable dissolution enhancing exicipents. A method to study intrinsic dissolution rate using paddle apparatus was developed and used to study dissolution mechanisms. Methods to simulate stomach and intestine environments in terms of media composition and volume and drug/antacid doses were developed. Antacid addition greatly increased the dissolution of ibuprofen in the stomach model. Novel methods to measure drug permeability through rat stomach and intestine were developed, using sac methodology. The methods allowed direct comparison of the apparent permeability values obtained. Tissue stability, reproducibility and integrity was observed, with selectivity between paracellular and transcellular markers and hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds within an homologous series of beta-blockers.